The South China Sea (SCS) and East China Sea (ECS) are becoming a major area of competition between the US and China. China’s actions in the SCS, including building islands and bases in the Spratly Islands, and asserting its claims against the Philippines and Vietnam, have caused concern among US observers that China is gaining control of the SCS, which is of great importance to the US and its allies. China’s domination of these seas could have significant impact on US interests in the Indo-Pacific region. The US has several potential goals for its strategic competition with China in these seas, including fulfilling security commitments, maintaining the US-led security architecture, promoting freedom of the seas, preventing China from becoming a regional hegemon, and pursuing these goals as part of its strategy for managing relations with China. Congress must decide if the Administration’s strategy for competing with China in these seas is appropriate and if it should approve, reject, or modify the strategy.